The Holy City of Makkah lies inland, some 73 km east of Jeddah, in the narrow, sandy Valley of Ibrahim. The land consists of rugged, rocky (predominantly granite) terrain, with mountain ranges on three sides (to the west, south and east).
Entrance to Makkah
There are three main entrances to the Holy City:
Makkah AI Mukkarrma is located on the extension of the feet of A1 Sarawat Mountains, and it represents the junction of Tihamah with mountains around Makkah. Accordingly, Makkah AI Mukkarrma is a group of valleys, which are traversed by mountains, also, these valley are the outlets of Makkah, especially towards the coast. The location of Makkah is very important; as it was the midpoint in the line of old trade caravans between Yemen in the south and AI Sham in the north.
The Mediterranean and the chain of mountains (Sarawat) have their effect on the climate in Makkah and the temperature is generally high.
In winter, it is between 20-25 C while in summer it could go up to 47 C. Rain is very rare with an average of 10-33 mm; and humidity ratio is 45-53%.
Makkah AI Mukkarrma is 300 meters above sea level.
Northwestern, dry in summer, cold and rainy in winter
North-eastern, dry in summer and winter, hot in summer and cold in winter
South-western, rainy seasonal winds